Air Temperatures The following high temperatures (F) were recorded across the state of Hawaii Wednesday…along with the low temperatures Wednesday:

80 – 67  Lihue, Kauai
82 – 63  Honolulu, Oahu
7958  Molokai AP
84 – 61  Kahului AP, Maui
81 – 66  Kona AP, Hawaii
77 – 65  Hilo, Hawaii

Here are the latest 24-hour precipitation totals (inches) for each of the islands Wednesday evening:

0.01  Mount Waialeale, Kauai
0.04  Luluku, Oahu
0.04  Molokai
0.00  Lanai
0.01  Kahoolawe
0.02  West Wailuaiki, Maui
0.39  Kapapala Ranch, Big Island

The following numbers represent the strongest wind gusts (mph) Wednesday evening:

21  Mana, Kauai
15  Kuaokala, Oahu
15  Molokai
10  Lanai
21  Kahoolawe
18  Maalaea Bay, Maui
23  Kaupulehu, Big Island

Hawaii’s MountainsHere’s a link to the live webcam on the summit of our tallest mountain Mauna Kea (nearly 13,800 feet high) on the Big Island of Hawaii. Here’s the webcam for the 10,000+ feet high Haleakala Crater on Maui (The camera is working again). These webcams are available during the daylight hours here in the islands, and at night whenever there’s a big moon shining down. Also, at night you will be able to see the stars, and the sunrise and sunset too…depending upon weather conditions.
The next cold front is approaching to the northwest

(click on the images to enlarge them)
This cold front is expected to move by just north over the weekend
Clear to partly cloudy…with a few cloudy areas
A few showers locally Looping image


High Surf Advisory…purple color below


Hawaii Weather Narrative



Broad Brush Overview: This first day of spring will bring fair weather conditions to the state through tonight, as an area of high pressure remains anchored far to northeast of the state. The trade winds will increase Thursday and Friday, as yet another cold front approaches from the northwest. This front will be close enough to bring increasing clouds and showers across the island chain this weekend.

Details: The area of high pressure northeast of the islands, combined with stable conditions aloft, continues to bring somewhat drier than normal conditions to the state. The high is expected to move eastward, and the pressure gradient over the islands will weaken…causing our winds to diminish. As we push into Thursday, a cold front will move closer to Hawaii, and in turn increase winds once again.

Looking Further Ahead: Models show the front’s shower band coming close to Kauai Saturday, and then stalling. Trade winds and moisture are expected to increase along and ahead of the front. This will prompt an increase in showers, favoring windward areas. Sunday will see surface high pressure building in , as an upper trough approaches the islands. Look for windy conditions due to the high, and trade shower activity due to the upper trough. The trough is expected to push through the islands Monday night…leaving a drier trade wind pattern in its wake.

Here’s a near real-time Wind Profile of the Pacific Ocean – along with a Closer View of the islands / Here’s the latest Weather Map

Marine Environmental Conditions: A brief period with light to moderate trades will continue into tonight, as the ridge remains near the area. Land and sea breeze conditions will continue through this time near the coasts. A return of moderate to strong trades is expected Thursday through the weekend, as high pressure builds north of the area. A combination of overlapping north to northwest swells and wind waves, rising from the strengthening trades will lead to Small Craft Advisory (SCA) conditions over exposed waters late Thursday through the weekend. Seas may reach advisory levels over exposed waters by tonight due to a large northwest swell expected to build down the island chain.

Surf along north and west facing shores will remain up through the weekend, as the active pattern across the north Pacific continues. A series of north to northwest swells is expected, the first of which will peak tonight. A reinforcement is expected Friday with its peak Friday night into Saturday. A similar swell is expected to build down the island chain Sunday, then gradually ease through Monday. Surf will climb to and above advisory levels, likely remaining at these levels through Sunday. A moderate northerly swell will be possible next Monday night through Tuesday, which could bring the surf back to advisory levels for north facing shores.

Surf along east facing shores will remain small through Thursday, then rise Friday through the weekend, as stronger trades return. Surf along south facing shores will remain small with southerly pulses moving through.


World-wide Tropical Cyclone Activity


Here’s the latest Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) Weather Wall Presentation covering the western Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian Sea, including retiring Tropical Cyclone 19S (Savannah), Tropical Cyclone 20P (Trevor), Tropical Cyclone 21S (Veronica)...and a tropical disturbance being referred to as Invest 93S

>>> Atlantic Ocean: The 2019 hurricane season begins June 1, 2019

Here’s a satellite image of the Atlantic

>>> Gulf of Mexico: The 2019 hurricane season begins June 1, 2019

>>> Caribbean Sea: The 2019 hurricane season begins June 1, 2019

Here’s a satellite image of the Caribbean Sea…and the Gulf of Mexico

>>> Eastern Pacific: The 2019 hurricane season begins May 15, 2019

Here’s the link to the National Hurricane Center (NHC)

>>> Central Pacific: The 2019 hurricane season begins June 1, 2019

Here’s the link to the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC)


>>> Northwest Pacific Ocean:  There are no active tropical cyclones

>>> South Pacific Ocean: 

Tropical Cyclone 20P (Trevor)

JTWC textual advisory
JTWC graphical track map

>>> North and South Indian Oceans / Arabian Sea:

Tropical Cyclone 19S (Savannah)

JTWC textual advisory
JTWC graphical track map

Tropical Cyclone 21S (Veronica)

JTWC textual advisory
JTWC graphical track map


Interesting: What Is the Toothiest Animal on Earth? – Peek inside a few animal mouths and you’ll see evidence of evolution’s finest work. Take snakes, whose teeth are needle-thin and spiked with venom — excruciatingly efficient instruments for killing prey. Or walruses, which use their massive teeth like ice picks to haul their heavy bodies along the ground. In hagfish, hook-like teeth that line the gullet are ideal for macerating the flesh into which they burrow, headfirst.

But, fancy fangs aside, when it comes to numbers, which animal on earth boasts the most?

As it turns out, there’s some stiff competition for the title of toothiest creature, depending on where you look — and what you define as a “tooth.” Here are some of the best contenders.

Deep in South America’s rainforests, the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) tops the land mammal tooth count, at 74 teeth. That number may not seem wildly impressive, but it’s high for mammals, who are actually some of the least toothy creatures on Earth.

Egg-laying mammals like platypuses have no teeth, marsupials like opossums have around 50, while humans have a measly 32, said Robert Voss, curator in the Department of Mammalogy at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. In this context, “the giant armadillo is definitely an anomaly.”

There’s an interesting reason behind this. Most mammals are ‘heterodonts,’ meaning their teeth have more than one shape and are complex, enabling precise interactions between the upper and lower jaw. This equips mammals to really mash up their food, which increases the food’s surface area and enables them to absorb more energy and nutrients. “Fewer teeth mean[s] they can focus on very precise types of contacts, and interactions, between opposing teeth” and thus maximize on energy consumption, said Peter Ungar, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Arkansas who studies how mammal teeth evolved.

But, unlike other mammals, giant armadillos are homodonts, meaning their teeth are less complex: “At the front, their teeth look sort of like sharp chiclets. Towards the back they look like pegs,” Voss said. These simpler gnashers suit a diet of soft-bodied vertebrates, which require only a little crushing to release energy. “Think of it like bubble tea: You don’t really need to chew those knobs up,” Voss said. Evolutionarily speaking, having simpler teeth means more can fit in the mouth. Add to that the giant armadillo’s long jaw, and the combination explains why these mammals are able to pack in more teeth than most.

Giant armadillos, however, “can’t hold a candle to some fish, which can have hundreds, even thousands of teeth in the mouth at once,” Ungar told Live Science. That revelation takes us plunging into the ocean — and into the jaws of requiem sharks, which are most likely the toothiest of all vertebrate animals, according to Gavin Naylor, director of the Florida Program for Shark Research.

This comes down to their rotational teething system — a smart biological hack that all shark species have. Instead of just one line of teeth rooted in the jaw, sharks grow multiple rows inside their mouths. These are tethered only to the skin covering the jaw, allowing them to move forward to replace lost teeth. Asked why sharks have this system, Naylor said, “I think a better question is, why don’t we? No dentist required!” Crucially, this perpetual conveyor belt enables sharks to replace the teeth they frequently lose in ferocious battles with their prey: “Teeth are important for feeding, so replacing them continuously could confer tremendous advantages,” Naylor said.

So, what kind of numbers are we talking about? At any given time, requiem sharks will have a few hundred active teeth in their mouths. But over the course of their lifetime, “estimates suggest some species of requiem sharks may grow and shed 30,000 teeth,” Naylor told Live Science. That’s threefold more than the great white (Carcharodon carcharias), which goes through about 10,000 during its lifetime.

And yet, that’s still overshadowed by one small creature whose toothiness outstrips us all.

Peer through a microscope inside a sea slug’s mouth, and you will find a forest of spikes so fearsome that they could be the inspiration for Ridley Scott’s 1979 film, “Alien.” These are slug teeth, and some species have several hundred thousand enclosed within their mouths.

Slugs belong to the class of animals called gastropoda, a generally toothy bunch that also includes limpets and snails. Their spikes don’t fit the strict definition of “teeth”: traditional ones like ours are made from calcium phosphate, and are typically found in vertebrate animals. Gastropod teeth — also known as “radula” — “are essentially ribbons of chitin, the same material as insect exoskeletons.”

But, technicalities aside, gastropod radula still have the same function: They help slugs, snails and limpets to eat. “The radula is used by both carnivorous and herbivorous molluscs to rasp fragments of food into their mouth — hence the Latin name ‘radula’ [which means] ‘little scraper,'” said Tom White, senior curator of noninsect invertebrates at the National History Museum in London. “Essentially, animals with radulae extend them — a bit like sticking out their tongue — and scrape at whatever they are feeding from.”

As the teeth wear down (creatures like sea slugs spend a lot of time scraping at rocks for food), “they are replaced by new ones that form at the back of the radula and move forward, similar to the continuously growing conveyor-belt rows of teeth in sharks,” White said. (You can see a photo of it here.)

As for the species that takes the ultimate prize for most teeth: Those are the umbrella slugs (Umbraculum umbraculum), colorful sea-dwelling slugs that go through an unbelievable 750,000 of these chitinous teeth in a lifetime.

Compared with this array of fascinatingly toothy animals, our own human gnashers simply don’t cut it, Ungar said. “Our teeth are boring!”