Air Temperatures The following high temperatures (F) were recorded across the state of Hawaii Monday…along with the low temperatures Monday:

85 – 74  Lihue, Kauai
85 – 75  Honolulu, Oahu
84 – 74  Molokai AP
8874  Kahului AP, Maui
85 – 72  Kailua Kona
82 – 69  Hilo, Hawaii

Here are the latest 24-hour precipitation totals (inches) for each of the islands Monday evening:

0.68  Mount Waialeale, Kauai
0.98  Poamoho RG 1, Oahu
0.02  Molokai
0.00  Lanai
0.00 Kahoolawe
0.51  West Wailuaiki, Maui
0.65  Saddle Quarry, Big Island

The following numbers represent the strongest wind gusts (mph) Monday evening:

30  Port Allen, Kauai
29  Kuaokala, Oahu
27  Molokai

28  Lanai
36  Kahoolawe
32  Maalaea Bay, Maui

30  Kealakomo, Big Island

Hawaii’s MountainsHere’s a link to the live webcam on the summit of our tallest mountain Mauna Kea (nearly 13,800 feet high) on the Big Island of Hawaii. Here’s the webcam for the 10,000+ feet high Haleakala Crater on Maui. These webcams are available during the daylight hours here in the islands, and at night whenever there’s a big moon shining down. Also, at night you will be able to see the stars, and the sunrise and sunset too…depending upon weather conditions.

Aloha Paragraphs
A cold front is located northwest…with a departing low pressure system northeast
(click on the images to enlarge them)
A Tropical Disturbance southwest…no threat to the islands

A mix of clouds and clear
Showers locally…a few are still quite generous
Looping image


There are no advisories or warnings


~~~ Hawaii Weather Narrative ~~~


Broad Brush Overview: An upper level trough continues to move away from the islands, with gradually decreasing showers. Trade winds will continue and then decrease in strength Tuesday, with winds becoming light and variable Wednesday through Friday…ahead of an approaching cold front. The front will move in from the northwest and sweep eastward through the island chain Friday through Sunday morning, bringing cloudy skies and showers to each island as it passes. Moderate to strong north to northeast trade winds will return in the wake of front…with scattered showers favoring windward and mountain slopes.

Details: As the trade winds diminish Tuesday night into Wednesday, our winds will become light and variable through Friday. These lighter winds will prompt sea breezes each day, with interior clouds and isolated showers, trending towards the afternoon hours. Cooler temperatures over the land each night will allow offshore land breezes to form in the evening hours…clearing out any clouds over the islands into the mornings. Land and sea breezes will continue across the eastern half of the state Friday, with more northerly winds returning to the western islands with the cold frontal passage.

Looking Ahead: The American (GFS) and the European (ECMWF) models are coming together on the timing of the upcoming frontal passage, expected to sweep across the state Friday through Sunday. This has helped to smooth out any model run-to-run consistency errors with the precipitation onset. The current timing of the front reaching Kauai is mid-day Friday, Oahu by Friday evening, into Maui by Saturday morning, and getting to the Big Island  Saturday afternoon.

Look for a period clouds and scattered showers along this front. Clouds and showers will impact each island as the front sweeps from west to east down the island chain. Wind speeds will increase out of the north to northeast after the front passes. Clouds and shower activity will gradually decrease behind the front, with scattered showers lingering over windward and mountain slopes of all islands…in a trade wind weather pattern through next week Monday.

Here’s a near real-time Wind Profile of the Pacific Ocean – along with a Closer View of the islands / Here’s the latest Weather Map / Here’s the latest Vog Forecast Animation / Here’s the Vog Information website

Marine Environmental Conditions: A surface high far northeast of the islands will slowly weaken through Tuesday while drifting northeast, allowing locally strong trade winds to slowly diminish. A cold front will approach the area from the northwest Wednesday and Thursday, bringing a more marked decrease in wind speeds, with winds expected to veer to the southeast before becoming light and variable.

Strong high pressure will build far northwest of the islands late in the week, pushing the frontal boundary through the island chain Friday and Saturday. Strong and gusty northeast winds are expected after the front passes next weekend.

No major swells are expected until the end of the week. A small west-northwest swell will diminish slightly Tuesday, with another small northwest swell Wednesday and Thursday. A small south swell is possible Friday and Saturday. An increasing north swell is possible toward the end of the week into the weekend, potentially pushing surf heights close to advisory levels along north facing shores.

World-wide Tropical Cyclone Activity


Here’s the latest Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) Weather Wall Presentation covering the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico

Here’s the latest Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) Weather Wall Presentation covering the Pacific and Indian Oceans, including a tropical disturbance in the central Pacific…and Tropical Cyclone 03S in the South Indian Ocean

>>> Atlantic Ocean: No active tropical cyclones

>>> Gulf of Mexico: No active tropical cyclones

>>> Caribbean Sea: No active tropical cyclones

Here’s a satellite image of the Caribbean Sea…and the Gulf of Mexico

Here’s the link to the National Hurricane Center (NHC)

>>> Eastern Pacific: No active tropical cyclones

>>> Central Pacific: No active tropical cyclones

1.) A weak area of low pressure located over 1600 miles southwest of the main Hawaiian Islands continues to produce disorganized showers and thunderstorms. Upper-level winds are not expected to be conducive for development before the low moves west of the International Date Line, and out of the Central Pacific basin, later today.

*Formation chance through 48 hours…low…near 0 percent
*Formation chance through 5 days…low…near 0 percent

>>> Northwest Pacific Ocean: No active tropical cyclones

>>> South Pacific Ocean: No active tropical cyclones

>>> North and South Indian Oceans / Arabian Sea: 

Tropical Cyclone 03S

JTWC textual advisory
JTWC graphical track map

Here’s a link to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)


Interesting: How Did People Wake Up Before Alarm Clocks? – Of all the modern inventions we rely on in our daily lives, the alarm clock is probably the most universally despised. Its jarring morning jangles jolt us uncomfortably out of our slumber, and back to reality. And yet however annoying alarm clocks are, they’re also indispensable in getting us out of bed. That raises an interesting question: How did people wake up before alarm clocks became so ubiquitous?

Throughout the ages, even the simple act of telling the time has presented a huge challenge to humans that we’ve tried to solve with elaborate inventions. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians developed sundials and towering obelisks that would mark the time with a shadow that moved with the sun. Dating back to around 1500 B.C., humans produced hourglasses, water clocks and oil lamps, which calibrated the passing of hours with movements of sand, water and oil.

Out of these early inventions came a few rudimentary attempts to create a morning alarm — such as candle clocks. These simplistic devices from ancient China were embedded with nails that were released as the wax melted away, leaving the nails to clatter loudly into a metal tray below at a designated time, waking the sleeper.

But such crude inventions were unpredictable and unreliable. And so, until more precise mechanical inventions were created, humans had to depend on another more innate form of timekeeping: our own internal body clocks.

Humans have two biological processes that underlie our natural sleeping and waking patterns: homeostasis and circadian rhythms, said Melinda Jackson, a senior research fellow in sleep and psychology at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University in Australia. The main principle underlying homeostasis — a signaling process that’s governed by the hypothalamus region in the brain — “is that the longer we are awake, the higher our drive for sleep or likelihood of falling asleep [is],” Jackson told Live Science. Then, “when we fall asleep, the drive for sleep dissipates across the night” — which signals when it’s time to wake up, she said.

Overlaying this, the circadian rhythm — also controlled by cells in the hypothalamus — is a parallel process that regulates phases of sleepiness and alertness over the course of a day. This process is also affected by light and dark, meaning that periods of alertness and sleepiness usually correspond with morning light and nighttime darkness, respectively. In an era before alarms, Jackson says it’s probable that this is how people woke up, cued by the accumulated hours of sleep, paired with the rays of the rising sun.

In her research on Britain’s historical sleeping practices, Sasha Handley, a senior lecturer in early modern history at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, has discovered that people during this Christian era would often orientate their beds toward the east — where the sun rose. Their reasoning was partly religious, because the east was believed to be the direction from which Jesus would come during his resurrection, she said. But it’s possible that this orientation also enabled people to wake with the sun’s rays.

“It’s hard to imagine now a world where your patterns of sleeping and waking up again were directly influenced by the setting and rising of the sun,” Handley told Live Science.

Another simple, but notable fact is that the people of yore had no way of soundproofing their houses against the noises of the outside world, like we do today, Handley added. “For a society that was overwhelmingly agriculture before the Industrial Revolution, noises of nature were probably really important things,” she said. The sounds of roosters crowing and mooing cows waiting to be milked would have interrupted people’s slumber. Church bells also functioned as a type of early alarm clock, she said.

Handley thinks that historically, people may also have been more personally motivated to wake up at a particular hour. Research on early modern Britain shows that during this era, the morning hours were seen as a spiritual time, when one’s closeness to God could be demonstrated by waking up at a scheduled time to pray. “Waking up in a scheduled way was seen to be a sign of health and good ethics,” Handley said. “There’s almost a sense of competitiveness that underpins this: The earlier you got out of bed, the more God had favored you with physical strengths.”

But by the 1600s and into the 1700s, self-reliance for waking probably became less crucial with the spread of the first domestic alarm clocks, known as lantern clocks, driven by internal weights that would strike a bell as an alarm. In 1800s Britain, wealthier families would also employ knocker-uppers — people armed with long sticks they used to tap incessantly on someone’s window until they were roused. (Some knocker-uppers even used straws through which they would shoot peas at their clients’ windows.) These human timekeepers were gradually replaced by the spread of cheap alarm clocks in the 1930s and 1940s — the precursors to those we know today.

But is our modern-day dependence on alarms actually a good thing? Jackson isn’t so sure. The fact that nowadays we tend to take the opportunity on weekends to sleep in is “an indication that people need to make more time for sleep during the week by going to sleep earlier at night, but we don’t do this,” she said. Instead, we’re working later and longer than ever, and our evenings are invaded by televisions, laptops and mobile phones. “Sleep is not prioritized,” Jackson said. “So, we don’t have much choice other than to use an alarm.”

In this regard, Handley thinks history may offer a few lessons. During early modern history, there’s evidence that people attached great importance to the health benefits of sleep. “Sleeping well is a really essential part of their regular health care practices,” Handley said.

Nighttime was highly ritualized: People consumed soporific herbal drinks, stuffed their pillows with soothing scented flowers and engaged in calming activities like prayer and meditation or in mindless hobbies such as embroidery right before bed.

If we were to take some advice from these historic humans, Handley said it would be to “put sleep back at the center of your 24-hour cycle. Treasure it and revel in it. It is the single best thing you can do for yourself.” As an added bonus, waking up wouldn’t be such a drag.