November 28-29, 2010
Air Temperatures – The following maximum temperatures were recorded across the state of Hawaii Sunday afternoon:
Lihue airport, Kauai – 78
Honolulu airport, Oahu – 82
Kaneohe, Oahu – 76
Molokai airport – 79
Kahului airport, Maui – 82
Kona airport – 83
Hilo airport, Hawaii – 80
Air Temperatures ranged between these warmest and coolest spots near sea level – and on the highest mountain tops…as of 4pm Sunday afternoon:
Honolulu, Oahu – 80F
Hana airport, Maui – 72
Haleakala Crater – 45 (near 10,000 feet on Maui)
Mauna Kea summit – 36 (near 14,000 feet on the Big Island)
Precipitation Totals – The following numbers represent the largest precipitation totals (inches) during the last 24 hours on each of the major islands, as of Sunday afternoon:
2.51 Mount Waialeale, Kauai
1.67 Oahu Forest NWR, Oahu
1.20 Oheo Gulch, Maui
0.36 Pahoa Stream, Big Island
Marine Winds – Here’s the latest (automatically updated) weather map showing a 1029 millibar high pressure system far to the northeast of the Hawaiian Islands. Our trade winds will become softer through the next few days.
Satellite and Radar Images: To view the cloud conditions we have here in Hawaii, please use the following satellite links, starting off with this Infrared Satellite Image of the islands to see all the clouds around during the day and night. This next image is one that gives close images of the islands only during the daytime hours, and is referred to as a Close-up visible image. This next image shows a larger view of the Pacific…giving perspective to the wider ranging cloud patterns in the Pacific Ocean. Finally, here's a Looping IR satellite image, making viewable the clouds around the islands 24 hours a day. To help you keep track of where any showers may be around the islands, here’s the latest animated radar image.
Hawaii’s Mountains – Here’s a link to the live web cam on the summit of near 14,000 foot Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. The tallest peak on the island of Maui is the Haleakala Crater, which is near 10,000 feet in elevation. These two web cams are available during the daylight hours here in the islands…and when there’s a big moon rising just after sunset for an hour or two! Plus, during the nights and early mornings you will be able to see stars, and the sunrise too…depending upon weather conditions.
Tropical Cyclone activity in the eastern and central Pacific – Here’s the latest weather information coming out of the National Hurricane Center, covering the eastern north Pacific. You can find the latest tropical cyclone information for the central north Pacific (where Hawaii is located) by clicking on this link to the Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Here’s a tracking map covering both the eastern and central Pacific Ocean. A satellite image, which shows the entire ocean area between Hawaii and the Mexican coast…can be found here. Of course, as we know, our hurricane season won't end until November 31st here in the central Pacific.
Molokini Crater, offshore from Maui…good snorkeling spot
The breezy trade winds will gear down Monday through early Wednesday, then become stronger Thursday and Friday…before easing off again next weekend. This weather map shows a 1029 millibar high pressure system located far to the northeast of Hawaii Sunday night. Our winds will become quite a bit lighter Monday, and remaining on the light side through Tuesday for so. The latest computer model information confirms that the trade winds return later Wednesday into Friday. Then, with another change, those rather strong and gusty trade winds during the second half of the new week…ease up again by the weekend.
Winds around the state are gradually coming down in strength…with the following numbers showing the strongest gusts around the state late Sunday afternoon:
23 mph Port Allen, Kauai
24 Kahuku, Oahu
23 Maalaea Bay, Maui
07 Lanai Airport
15 Honokaa, Big Island
As the trade wind ease up, we'll see some increase in localized showers over the next several days. Here's a satellite image, showing clouds and showers moving along the windward sides. It looks like there will be a backing off the showers that we've most of the day Sunday, perhaps into Monday. This is because of the clear slot just east of the state, that will bring a temporary drop in cloudiness. Here's a looping radar image, so we can keep track of where the showers are falling. If we shift our gaze to a larger satellite view, we can see those whiter and brighter clouds, the high level cirrus, moving over the state from the west…with more of it further to the southwest. There are pockets of heavier rain out to the east, out over the ocean at the time of this writing. The models continue to show a trough of low pressure moving towards the state from the east over the next few days. This in turn still may bring in additional moisture to fuel increased showers.
It's Sunday evening as I begin writing this last section of today's narrative update. The trade winds, which have been blustery the last several days, will finally be settling down as we move into Monday. This will take place thanks to a trough of low pressure moving by to the northeast. This will help to slacken the wind flow, and put us into a convective, lighter wind weather pattern.
~~~ As the trough gets closer, our overlying atmosphere will become less stable, and as a consequence…additionally more shower prone. The trough too will help bring in moisture to fuel those showers. The best chance for this rainfall will be from Monday through Tuesday or so. If things go according to plan, the most opportune time for precipitation would be during the afternoon hours, as the clouds take advantage of the daytime heating. Perhaps the larger islands of Maui and the Big Island would receive the most generous showers, being closest to the trough. The bulk of this rainfall would probably fall over the interior parts of the islands, although not exclusively. As we get into the middle of the new week, we should see the trough losing its influence, with the trade winds returning. This would bring whatever showery clouds that were around then, back over to the windward sides. This could lead to a period of perhaps two days, around Thursday and Friday coming up, when we could see locally heavy rains…stay tuned.
~~~ Here in Kula, Maui, the air temperature was 64.6F degrees, under cloudy skies…at around 5pm. Today was quite a cloudy day in many areas, including here in the upcountry area of Maui. We've had slight drizzle and mist all afternoon, with still that sound of dripping out the window of my weather tower as we get into the sunset period. Looking out, I can't see much at the moment, as a pea soup fog has overlapped this area! There's liable to be a good sunset this evening, at least in those areas that are out from under the low clouds around the state now. I'll be back early Monday morning with your next new weather narrative, I hope you have a good Sunday night until then! Aloha for now…Glenn.
Interesting: The fact that the world population is growing older will not only affect our pensions. In just a few decades there will be more elderly people than children in all parts of the world (with the exception of Africa). "The trend is dramatic," states Norwegian sociologist Gunhild Hagestad.
More than pension schemes and care
Media reports on the world's aging population tend to focus on pensions and care for the elderly. But other changes could be just as important. What will happen to family life, for example? And what will the relationship between the generations be like when so many of us live longer and have fewer children?
These were some of the questions addressed by Chinese and Norwegian welfare researchers when they met in Shanghai in September for a seminar on welfare research hosted by the Research Council of Norway at the World Exhibition EXPO 2010.
Welfare policy shapes personal lives
Perhaps the most important point made by Professor Hagestad in her lecture about the aging problem to the Chinese and Norwegian welfare researchers in Shanghai was that our lives are shaped by the welfare policy of the states we live in to a much greater extent than we think. Both the Nordic region and China are examples of this.
China's one-child policy is well known. Without it there would be 400 million more Chinese people in the world today. But the Nordic region also stands out internationally; its welfare policy clearly sets it apart from large parts of the world.
Norway as the exception
The two phenomena of low mortality and low fertility are having a distinct impact on the population in many countries. The result is a steadily aging population in almost all parts of the world, apart from in Africa.
Women are increasingly better educated, more independent and career-minded. This, combined with the lack of welfare schemes in many countries, goes a long way to explaining why women no longer want to have children. Researchers have identified this trend in a number of modern societies.
The Nordic region — and in particular Norway — is the exception to the rule, as childbirth rates there are still relatively high.
High birth rates among the poor
"In general, it is the poorest segments of the world's population that now have the highest birth rate. This is something we ought not ignore," says Professor Hagestad. She is aware that this perspective may seem elitist. All the same she thinks it too important not to be discussed. "At this point in time there is a balance between the number of elderly people and the number of children in Norway.
In my opinion it is important to try and maintain this," says Professor Hagestad, who works at the University of Agder and Norwegian Social Research (NOVA). She also participates in activities at the research centre Reassessing the Nordic Welfare Model, a Nordic Centre of Excellence under the auspices of the Nordic research organisation NordForsk.
Professor Hagestad has held research positions and professorships in both Europe and the US and has served on several UN committees related to her field.
In China family is a family responsibility
China has one of the fastest growing elderly populations in the world. According to an article in the international journal Research on Aging in 2009, the elderly population in China will have tripled by 2050.
Norway and China are in many ways extreme opposites when it comes to family policy. Under China's policy responsibility for the family rests entirely with families themselves. There are almost no institutions for the elderly, and few elderly people receive pensions.
Most elderly people are therefore completely dependent on their families — and traditionally primarily on the women family members. However, Chinese women, too, are much more likely to be out working now than previously. The family as a network is also being weakened by rapid urbanization.
The many years of one-child policy have resulted in 400 million fewer inhabitants, and China will be facing a problem in the future. Who is going to take care of the elderly? More and more married couples will find themselves responsible for four aging parents, without any siblings to share the task.
Welfare schemes affect fertility rates
The same trend can be seen elsewhere in Europe, outside the Nordic region. "In 2050 there will be four times as many elderly people in Italy as children. Greece, Spain, Portugal and many other countries will follow this pattern.
Whereas Spanish women have to look after both their grandchildren and their elderly parents, in Norway this responsibility is divided between the public sector and the family. This is quite clearly the most important reason why fertility rates are so different," says Professor Hagestad.
Relationship between the generations
The relationship between the generations is also influenced by welfare schemes. This becomes clear if you compare the Nordic countries with countries in southern Europe. "In Norway grandparents do not have to provide steady childcare for their grandchildren.
They can come and go, providing back-up as required. In a country such as Spain, where the public sector does not provide the same level of childcare, this grandparenting strategy is much more risky.
The result is that Norwegian and Nordic grandparents take their responsibility more seriously, as compared to grandparents in other European countries." "In the Nordic region responsibility for the care of the elderly has become an established part of the public sector. Nevertheless it is extremely rare that families do not provide help to other family members who need it," Professor Hagestad remarks.
"The Nordic region is also an exception in another way: all over the world responsibility for taking care of the elderly primarily lies with women. But this is not the case in the Nordic countries. It is the only region where the researchers have found relatively small differences in expectations when it comes to how much daughters and sons should help their parents," she explains.
"When segregation between young and old people becomes too marked, it can have a negative impact on a society," says the professor. "The result could be a society in which children, adults and the elderly spend even more of their time in separate spheres and gradually cease to understand each other.
One way of counteracting this would be for children and elderly people to build alliances. But, if we are to succeed in this, society must first create the necessary framework."
Elderly population largely female
Apart from the increasing imbalance between the generations, the growing feminization of the population is the most important demographic development trend in the world today. "Women often cope better than men in the modern world. In most countries women outlive their husbands.
In Norway girls born today can expect to live five years longer than boys (78 years versus 83 years). If you look at the oldest segment of the elderly population, in many countries there are twice as many women as men, including in Norway."
In China the differences in life expectancy are less pronounced. There girls can expect to live until they are 75 and boys until they are 71. But in Russia women live on average 12-13 years longer than men," Professor Hagestad points out. "Russian children may think that almost all old people are women. They hardly ever see any older men."
Warnings from social scientists
Professor Hagestad gave her lecture in Shanghai just a few days before China was to mark the 30th anniversary of its one-child policy. The ban on families having more than one child was intended to last for 30 or 40 years. Now the Chinese authorities are saying that the policy will continue until 2015.
But they are gradually allowing exceptions. A number of couples, in particular farmers, are permitted to have more than one child. The authorities now realize that the one-child policy will have significant negative ramifications, both economically and socially.
In August the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) presented a surprising report, in which the researchers urged the authorities to quickly bring the one-child policy to an end. The Chinese social scientists argued instead that people should be encouraged to have more children.
Researchers at CASS have found that it may be difficult to get Chinese people to have more children in the years to come, even if the authorities abandon their current stringent policy. In important areas of China, Chinese women will on average have fewer than 1.5 children in any case, the researchers warn. In order to maintain the current population level women need to have an average of 2.1 children each.
Interesting2: A guide to smoking bans around the world as governments seek to improve the health of their populations.
Australia~ The state of Western Australia introduced the strictest anti-smoking laws in the country in September 2010, with bans in cars carrying children, on sections of beaches and within 32ft of playground equipment. Australia also plans to force tobacco companies to use plain packaging carrying graphic health warnings from July 2012. Across the country, smoking is already banned inside all airports, government offices, health clinics and workplaces.
New Zealand~ New Zealand has announced a ban on smoking throughout prisons from July 2011. Officials said high levels of smoking were a risk to staff and prisoners, and they dismissed concerns that the ban would spark violence. It is believed that two-thirds of the New Zealand's prison populations are smokers. New Zealand already bans smoking in bars, clubs, restaurants, offices, workplaces and shops, and on public transport.
Canada~ Canada's strict anti-smoking laws have been credited with cutting hospital admissions for heart and respiratory problems by about a third. A study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal in April 2010 monitored admissions in the city of Toronto since smoking bans were introduced in 2001.
Smoking levels in Canada have long been among the lowest in the world, with about 21% of Canadians over the age of 15 reported to be smokers in 2002, according to government statistics. In addition to bans on smoking in workplaces and many public places, cigarette packets bear graphic images of the damage done to internal organs by smoking.
China~ China banned smoking in hospitals in May 2010 but activists say there have seen no signs of the government introducing a promised national ban on smoking in public places. Many Chinese cities have their own regulations on where people can light up, but enforcement is varied.
A government survey in August showed that only a quarter of the adult population believed that smoking increased the risk of cancer. Anti-smoking campaigns are failing to influence them, state news agency Xinhua reported.
In May 2008, in the run-up to the Olympic Games, a smoking ban for most public buildings came into force in the Chinese capital, Beijing. The country has an estimated 350 million smokers. For every three cigarettes lit worldwide, one is smoked in China.
Syria~ In April 2010 Syria become the first Arab state to ban smoking in public places including restaurants and cafes. The law also prohibits smoking in educational institutions, health centers, sports halls, cinemas and theatres, and on public transport. The restrictions include the nargile, or hubble-bubble pipe, which is popular among locals and tourists.
Egypt~ Egypt took its first steps in introducing a smoking ban earlier this year. In July, the city of Alexandria began enforcing an existing law – usually flouted – that banned smoking in government buildings. Officials said they aimed to extend the ban to the city's cafes within two years. Egypt is the biggest consumer of cigarettes in the Arab world, puffing its way through some 19 billion cigarettes every year.
Greece has long been regarded as Europe's biggest smoking nation and has struggled to make its citizens kick the habit. In September 2010 a fresh attempt was made with a law banning tobacco advertising and smoking in enclosed public spaces. In 2009 smoking was prohibited in hospitals and schools, vehicles and all public spaces but it was largely ignored in many areas. Previous attempts to introduce a ban in 2002 and 2003 also failed.
Spain already has anti-smoking laws but tougher rules were announced in October which will give the country some of the strictest legislation in Europe. Lighting up will be banned in bars, cafes and restaurants and extend to open areas near hospitals, schools and children's playground. The new rules are due to come into effect in January.
Poland brought in anti-smoking laws in November 2010. The ban covers schools, museums, theatres, airports and railway and bus stations, public transport, stadiums, hospitals and playgrounds. Smoking is also banned in one-room restaurants and bars.
Estonia joined those European countries banning smoking in bars and restaurants on 5 June, 2007. The law bans smoking in cafes, restaurants, bars, nightclubs – except for special zones – and at bus stops and underground train stations. Offenders face a fine of 80 euros, while owners of cafes and restaurants can face a fine of up to 2,000 euros.
Finland introduced a similar measure on 1 June 2009.
France took a major step towards a total public ban when it announced it would prevent smoking in workplaces and other public buildings from 1 February 2007. The law was extended in 2008 to include cafes, restaurants and bars. Its first serious move to cut smoking levels came in October 2003, when it raised the price of cigarettes by 20%.
Correspondents say attitudes to smoking have changed dramatically in France since the 2007 ban, and any fears that people would generally ignore the laws have proved false.
Germany, eight states, including Berlin, ushered in 2008 declaring their pubs and restaurants smoke-free. German restaurants and pubs have strongly resisted the bans, not only because of the potential loss of income but partly because of an earlier crackdown on smoking initiated by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime.
The sensitivity of the issue has prompted the authorities to allow special rooms to be set up purely for smokers. The toughest rules in Germany have been brought in by Bavaria, where no smoking rooms have been allowed. Lighting up was recently banned at the Oktoberfest Munich beer festival for the first time.
Republic of Ireland imposed tough anti-smoking legislation in March 2004, banning smoking in pubs, restaurants and other enclosed workplaces. Anyone caught smoking in a prohibited location now faces a fine of up to 3,000 euros (£2,000).
Italy imposed a ban on smoking in all enclosed public places including bars and restaurants from midnight on 10 January, 2005. Montenegro: In August 2004,
Montenegro – then part of a union with Serbia – decided to introduce a sweeping ban on smoking in public places in the hope of overturning an established culture of smoking in offices, restaurants, bars and on buses. Tobacco advertising and the portrayal of smoking on television are also banned.
The Netherlands: The Dutch government banned smoking for hotels, restaurants and the catering industry in 2008, but in November 2010 announced that it plans to exempt bars smaller than 70sq m (753sq ft), with no staff other than the owner. All bars must put up a sign telling customers whether or not it is a smoking establishment. Health Minister Edith Schippers said consumers "will get more freedom of choice and personnel will remain protected against tobacco smoke".
Norway a national ban was imposed on smoking in restaurants, bars and cafes from 1 June 2004.
Portugal introduced restrictions on 1 January 2008 but the rules not as tight as some other European countries. Portuguese bars smaller than 100sq m can still opt to allow smoking. Public buildings can still have smoking zones, provided they are clearly signposted and ventilated.
Sweden was prohibited smoking in all bars and restaurants from midnight in May 2005.
United Kingdom smoking is banned in nearly all enclosed public spaces – including bars, restaurants and workplaces. The ban came into force in England in July 2007. Scotland introduced a ban in March 2006, followed by Wales and Northern Ireland in April 2007.
The government also plans to ask tobacco firms to put only basic information and health or picture warnings on their packets. Making packets a plain color would also protect children from taking up smoking in the first place, it suggests.
India~ A ban on smoking in public places came into force in October 2008 in an effort to curb high levels of tobacco addiction. The law also bans direct and indirect advertising of tobacco products and the sale of cigarettes to children.
Iran~ Iran banned tobacco advertising and smoking in public buildings in October 2003 – but analysts say both measures have had little effect. However, in July 2010 smokers were banned from taking high-ranking jobs in the Iranian government, the news agency ILNA reported. Statistics show smoking among young Iranians is on the rise.
U.S.~ Many cities and states are considering – or already enforcing – bans on smoking. By November 2010, 27 states had banned lighting up in public places. California has some of the toughest and most extensive anti-smoking legislation anywhere in the world.
A ban on smoking inside or within 1.5m of any public building came into force in 1993 – recently extended to 6m. Smoking is also banned in restaurants, bars and enclosed workplaces – and on beaches – throughout the state.
In New York, smoking has been banned in bars, clubs and restaurants since March 2003. Anti-smoking laws have provoked a strong debate in the US. Some bar owners say their businesses are suffering and smokers say their rights are being infringed, while non-smokers say they enjoy the smoke-free environment.
Russia~ The Russian government has announced plans to ban advertising and promotion of cigarettes from 2011 and to introduce a complete ban on smoking in enclosed spaces by 2015. The addiction kills up to 500,000 people a year in the country, Russia's RIA Novosti news agency reports.
A 2009 survey by the World Health Organization found that Russia has 43.9 million smokers – about 40% of the population. The survey also revealed that 60% of Russian men and 22% of Russian women smoke.
Uruguay~ Uruguay – which recently hosted an international summit tobacco control – has introduced some of the world's toughest anti-tobacco policies, banning smoking in private as well as public enclosed spaces. It requires 80% of every cigarette package to show graphic images of the consequences of smoking, including diseased lungs and rotten gums.
Kenya~ In the capital, Nairobi, a ban on smoking in indoor public places came into force in July 2007, with a similar ban in Mombasa and the Rift Valley town of Nakuru. Anyone smoking in offices, bus stations, airports and sports venue faces a fine of 50,000 Kenya shillings ($700; £375) or six months in prison. Bars and restaurants without separate smoking areas are also affected.
Tanzania~ Tanzania banned smoking in many public places in July 2003, with smoke-free zones declared on public transport, as well as in schools and hospitals. The government also banned the selling of tobacco to under-18s and advertising on radio and television and in newspapers.